The term Modern Slavery captures a whole range of types of exploitation, many of which occur together. These include but are not limited to:
• Sexual exploitation – This includes but is not limited to sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, forced prostitution and the abuse of children for the production of child abuse images/videos. 35% of all reported trafficking victims in the UK are victims of sexual exploitation.3
• Domestic servitude – This involves a victim being forced to work in predominantly private households, usually performing domestic chores and childcare duties. Their freedom may be restricted and they may work long hours often for little or no pay, often sleeping where they work. 24% of reported victims of domestic servitude referred to the National Referral mechanism were minors at the time of exploitation.4
• Forced labour – Victims may be forced to work long hours for little or no pay in poor conditions under verbal or physical threats of violence to them or their families. It can happen in various industries, including construction, manufacturing, laying driveways, hospitality, food packaging, agriculture, maritime and beauty (nail bars). Often victims are housed together in one dwelling. 47% of reported victims exploited in the UK are forced into labour. 18% of all reported forced labour victims in the UK are children – an increase of 62.5% since 2015. 81% of all reported victims of forced labour taking place in the UK are male.5
• Criminal exploitation – This can be understood as the exploitation of a person to commit a crime, such as pick-pocketing, shop-lifting, cannabis cultivation, drug trafficking and other similar activities that are subject to penalties and imply financial gain for the trafficker. In the UK in 2016, 34 potential modern slavery victims were involved in fraud or financial crime whereby perpetrators force victims to claim benefits on arrival but the money is withheld, or the victim is forced to take out loans or credit cards. Cannabis cultivation is the highest category of criminal exploitation with 33% of those being a minor at the time of referral, the majority being Vietnamese.7
• Other forms of exploitation – Organ removal; forced begging; forced benefit fraud; forced marriage and illegal adoption.